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  Researchers :: Emotions and temperament (GEO)

Figures and Findings

Below are a few of the significant findings that have come out of Dr. Goldsmith's research on emotions and temperament.

Correlations between Positive Affect and Empathy Components1

 
Pooled Sample
Girls
Boys
 
Helping
Concern
Hypothesis Testing
Helping
Concern Hypothesis
Testing
Helping
Concern Hypothesis
Testing
Positive Affect
.16**
.09
.12*
.22**
.15*
.06
.10
.05
.16*

* p < .05, ** p < 0.01

Twin Similarity for Positive Affect and the Empathy Composites1

Composites Intraclass Correlations
  MZ DZ
Positive Affect .56 .49
Helping .18 .20
Concern .48 .35
Hypothesis Testing .57 .38

Phenotypic Correlations2

 
TBAQ-IC (22 mos.)
CBQ-IC (36 mos.)
IBQ-Distress to Limitation
(12 mos.)
.34**
--.13**
IBQ-Duration of Orienting
.17**
.16**
TBAQ-IC (22 mos.)
-
.43**

**p<.01

Intraclass Twin Correlations2

 
MZr
DZr
IBQ-Distress to Limitation
(12 mos.)
.65**
.46**
IBQ-Duration of Orienting
.89**
.78**
TBAQ-IC (22 mos.)
.71**
.47**
CBQ-IC (36 mos.)
.56**
.19**

**p<.01

Correlations Between Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ) and Children's Behavior3

(CBQ) Scales in a Calibration Sample

TBAQ scale Corresponding CBQ scale Correlation
Activity Level Activity Level .68
Pleasure Smiling/Laughter .47
Approach .41
High Pleasure .22
Low Pleasure .34
Social Fear Shyness .72
Fear .38
Anger Proneness Anger .47
Impulsivity .27
Sadness .29
Activity Level .37
Approach .35
Interest/Persistence Attentional Focusing .58

Note. For the calibration sample, N =109 singletons.

1 Volbrecht, M., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2007). Examining the familial link between positive affect and empathy development in the second year. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168, 105-129.
2 Gagne, J. R. & Goldsmith, H. H. (June, 2007). A twin analysis of inhibitory behavior from 12-36 months of age. Paper presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Behavior Genetics Association, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
3 Goldsmith, H. H., Buss, K. A., & Lemery, K. S. (1997). Toddler and childhood temperament: expanded content, stronger genetic evidence, new evidence for the importance of environment. Developmental Psychology, 33., 891-905.


University of Wisconsin-Madison :: Department of Psychology :: Waisman Center
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Psychology Department, University of WI, Madison
Waisman Center, UW Madison