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List of assessments at each major phase of emotion & temperament research (GEO project)

List of assessments at each major phase of emotion & temperament research (GEO project)

PHASE I, AGE: 12 WEEKS OR YOUNGER
PHASE II, AGE: 6 MONTHS
PHASE III, AGE: 9 MONTHS
PHASE IV, AGE: 12 MONTHS
PHASE V, AGES: 19-30 MONTHS
PHASE VI, AGE: 36 MONTHS
PHASE VII, AGE: 6-9 YEARS (FOLLOW-UP VISIT)
"Other" assessments (not specific to phases)

PHASE I, AGE: 12 WEEKS OR YOUNGER

Home visit 1

  • Emotion onset: Observation/verification of social smile
  • Cognition: Bayley Scale of Mental Development (Bayley, 1993): sensory-motor tasks appropriate for age
  • Home Environment: HOME Observation for Assessmentment of the Environment (Caldwell & Bradley, 1984)
  • Interactional assessment: 5 min primary caregiver-infant play videotaped sessions of cognitive and emotional exchange
  • Bayley Behavior Rating Scale Record Form; completed by experimenter to evaluate attention, orientation, emotion regulation, and motor quality

Questionnaires

  • Demographic questionnaire: information on family structure and socioeconomic status
  • Temperament: Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ)--Twin A & B, by primary caregiver (Rothbart, 1981)
  • Temperament: Infant Irritability Scale (IIS)--Twin A & B, by primary caregiver (O'Boyle, 1996)
  • Home Environment: Family Expressiveness Questionnaire (FEQ) - by primary caregiver (Halberstadt, 1986)
  • Parental Personality: Positive, Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) - parents' self-report (Watson & Clark)
  • Parental Personality: Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CESD)--primary caregiver (Rodloff, 1977)

Post-visit videotaping at home: Parent-infant interaction, 3 common home situations

  • Interactional assessments: Bathtime, Bedtime, & Feeding (inc. maternal sensitivity & infant responsiveness)

PHASE II, AGE: 6 MONTHS

Lab Visit 1: Behavioral Assessment

  • Temperament: Prelocomotor Lab-TAB (Goldsmith & Rothbart, version 3, 1996)
    • Pleasure episodes; peek- a-boo with parent and puppet show
    • Activity episodes; infant plays with basket of toys
    • Anger episodes; gentle arm restraint by parent, placement in a car seat
    • Fear episodes; reaction to novel masks, friendly stranger approach
    • Interest/Persistence episodes; viewing neutral slide show
  • Cognition: Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988). Visual reaction time task with computer generated stimuli
  • Bayley Behavior Rating Scale Record Form; filled out by experimenter to evaluate attention, orientation, emotion regulation, and motor quality

Lab Visit 2/Lab Visit 3: Psychophysiology (Davidson lab)

  • Baseline cardiac and respiration: recording 10 minutes of baseline activity for assessment of RSA
  • Baseline EEG: recording of brain electrical activity for five, 1 minute segments
  • Cardiac, respiration, and EEG assessments while pleasure, wariness, and mild anger are elicited with Goldsmith and Rothbart's Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery
Cortisol collection (post visit 2): Cortisol collected by expressing child's saliva
  • Total of 5 samples per twin, 2 in the lab and 3 at home (including cortisol background questionnaire)

Questionnaires

  • Zygosity questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1991)
  • Temperament: Infant Behavior Questionnaire--by both parents
  • Home Environment: Family Expressiveness Questionnaire--by primary caregiver
  • Home Environment: Parental Stress Index--by both parents
  • Home Environment: Childrearing Practices Report (CRPR) Version 1
  • Parental Personality: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule--both parents self-report

PHASE III, AGE: 9 MONTHS

Home visit 2

  • Locomotor Onset: Observation & Verification of Crawling Onset; dates obtained from parents
  • Emotion onset: Observation/verification stranger distress; stranger approach in home
  • Emotion onset: Observation of anger to arm restraint; gentle arm restraint in home
  • Cognition: Object permanence task (Uzgiris & Hunt, 1978); Piaget based task
  • Physical: Reaching tasks (handedness)
  • Physical: Bimanual tasks
  • Interactional assessment: Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCAST) (Sumner & Spietz, 1994)
  • Bayley Behavior Rating Scale Record Form; filled out by experimenter to evaluate attention, orientation, emotion regulation, and motor quality

Questionnaires

  • Handedness questionnaire--by both parents
  • Parental Personality: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule--both parents' self-report
  • Parental Personality: Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale--by primary caregiver
Post-visit videotaping at home
  • Interactional assessments: Bathtime, Bedtime, & Feeding

PHASE IV, AGE: 12 MONTHS

Lab visit 4: Behavioral assessment

  • Temperament: Prelocomotor Lab-TAB (Goldsmith & Rothbart, 1988; 1996)
    • Pleasure episodes; peek-a-boo with Primary caregiver, puppet show
    • Activity episodes; child placed in a circle of age-appropriate toys
    • Anger episodes; gentle arm restraint; placement in car seat
    • Fear episodes; reaction to novel masks; stranger approach
    • Interest/Persistence episodes; viewing neutral slide show
  • Cognition: Object Permanence tasks: Piaget based task
  • Cognition: Visual Expectation Paradigm: visual reaction time to computer generated stimuli
  • Bayley Behavior Rating Scale Record Form; completed by experimenter to evaluate attention, orientation, emotion regulation, and motor quality

Lab Visit 5/ Lab Visit 6: Psychophysiology (Davidson lab)

  • Baseline cardiac and respiration: recording 10 minutes of baseline activity for assessment of RSA
  • Baseline EEG: recording of brain electrical activity for five, 1 minute segments
  • Cardiac, respiration, and EEG assessments while pleasure, wariness, and mild anger are elicited with Goldsmith and Rothbart's Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery

Cortisol collection (post visit 5): Cortisol collected by expressing child's saliva

  • Total of 5 samples per twin, 2 in the lab and 3 at home (including cortisol background questionnaire)

Questionnaires

  • Physical/Health: Pediatric Update Form: information on illness; surgery during first year
  • Temperament: Infant Behavior Questionnaire--by both parents
  • Home Environment: Family Expressiveness Questionnaire--by primary caregiver
  • Home Environment: Parental Stress Index--by both parents
  • Parental Personality: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule--both parents self-report
  • Cognition: MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory--parent checklist of words and communicative gestures child makes

PHASE V, AGES: 19-30 MONTHS

Laboratory visits 7, 8, 9 & 10 at 19 months, 22 months, 25 months, & 28 months
These visits are similar and include the following assessments

  • Self development: self-other distinctions
  • Self development: Mirror image tests of self-recognition
  • Self conscious emotions: Empathy tasks (primary caregiver simulates hurt twice)
  • Self conscious emotions: Pride/shame task (reactions to winning/losing)
  • Self conscious emotions: Embarrassment tasks (compliments, dancing)
  • Self conscious emotions: Guilt task (mishaps created that were apparently child's fault)
  • Temperament: Inhibitory Control tasks (snack delay, opening gift, select 2 toys from large container)
  • Palm prints (done once)
  • Bayley Behavior Rating Scale Record Form; filled out by experimenter to evaluate attention, orientation, emotion regulation, and motor quality
Cortisol collection: Cortisol collected by expressing saliva from child's mouth
  • Total of 3 samples per twin, all at home at 25 months (including cortisol background questionnaire)
Questionnaire at 18 months
  • Cognition: MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: parent checklist of child's words & sentences
Questionnaires at 22 months
  • Temperament: Goldsmith's (1996) Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (TBAQ)--by both parents
  • Home Environment: Family Expressiveness Questionnaire--by primary caregiver
  • Home Environment: Parental Stress Index--by both parents
Questionnaires at 25 months
  • Physical/Health: Pediatric Update Form: information on illness/surgery during 2nd year
  • Parental Personality: Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)--by both parents
  • Cognition: MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory--by primary caregiver
Questionnaires at 30 months
  • Cognition: MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: parent checklist of words & sentences

PHASE VI, AGE: 36 MONTHS

Laboratory visit 11

  • Temperament: Preschool Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Goldsmith & Reilly, 1993)
  • Sixteen episodes tapping different aspects of temperament
    • Activity episodes; child placed in tub of large playground balls (gross motor skill activity), child manipulates workbench (fine motor activity)
    • Distress; gentle arm restraint, parent takes novel toy from child, experimenter unevenly distributes candy, child expects gift and opens empty box
    • Fear episodes; playtime in room with novel toys; stranger approach
    • Interest/Persistence episodes; viewing neutral slide show, sorting beads by color
    • Exuberance; child surprises parent with pop-up toy, child pops bubbles
    • Inhibitory Control; child must wait for cue from experimenter before eating snack, select 2 toys from large container of toys
    • Contentment; child makes bookmark, child draws picture
  • Temperament: Bayley Behavior Rating Scale Record Form; filled out by experimenter to evaluate attention, orientation, emotion regulation, and motor quality

Lab visit 12

  • Parental Personality & Marital Interaction: Birth narrative; parents describe twins' pregnancy, labor, & delivery
  • Temperament & sibling interaction: Free play session
  • Interactional assessment: (NCATS), child learns new task from primary caregiver and secondary caregiver
  • Cognition: abbreviated Bayley Scale of Mental Development; items assessing formation of concepts
  • Cognition: Language samples
  • Temperament: Bayley Behavior Rating Scale Record Form; completed by experimenter to evaluate attention, orientation, emotion regulation, and motor quality

Questionnaires

  • Physical/Health: Pediatric Update Form: information on illness/surgery during 3rd year
  • Temperament: Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ)--by both parents
  • Home Environment: Family Expressiveness Questionnaire--by primary caregiver
  • Home Environment: Childrearing Practices Report Version 2
  • Interactional: Sibling Conflict Questionnaire (revised for twins)--by primary caregiver

PHASE VII, AGE: 6-9 YEARS (FOLLOW-UP VISIT)

Home visit 13

  • Primary caregiver-child interaction procedures with the twins
  • Twin A-Twin B social interaction without primary caregiver present
  • 12 episodes of the home version of the Preschool Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery
  • Assessment of emotion-modulated startle in the home using video coding, a technique recently validated by us in Davidson's lab
  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
Questionnaires (administered to primary caregiver during the visit)
  • Physical/Health: Pediatric Update Form: information on illness/surgery during 3rd year
  • Temperament: Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ)--by both parents
  • Home Environment: Family Expressiveness Questionnaire--by primary caregiver
  • Home Environment: Childrearing Practices Report Version 2
  • Interactional: Sibling Conflict Questionnaire (revised for twins)--by primary caregiver

"Other" assessments (not specific to phases)

MEDICAL RECORDS (CONSENT AT 3-MONTHS)

  • Obstetrics scale: indexes maternal complication during pregnancy, labor, and delivery
  • Neonatal complications scale: indexes problems during first few weeks of life
  • Neonatal morbidity scale: indexes major illnesses/problems of infants

MATERNAL DIARIES (BEGINNING AT WEEK 13, CONTINUING

  • Emotion Checklists: Discrete Emotion Scale (modified) ratings
  • Dental Charts
  • Locomotion milestones
  • Assessment of specific changes in family situation, child health, etc (Weekly Questionnaire)

REGULAR TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS, 6-16 MONTHS, REGARDING THE FOLLOWING TOPICS (AS AGE-APPROPRIATE)

  • Physical growth: weight and height at significant ages, 6, 9, and 12 months
  • Separation distress: infant's response to caregiver leaving
  • Stranger distress: infant's response to strangers
  • Language milestones: one, two-word onsets
  • Shy behavior
  • Bold behavior
  • Self-recognition: infant's recognition of self in mirror or pictures
  • Internalization of standards: infant's compliance to family/societal rules

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University of Wisconsin-Madison :: Department of Psychology :: Waisman Center
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Psychology Department, University of WI, Madison
Waisman Center, UW Madison